Mustard Seeds

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Contract Specifications
Commodity Name Rapeseed/Mustard Seed
Basis for price quote Ex-warehouse Jaipur, exclusive of sales taxes/VAT
Trading unit  10 MT
Delivery unit 10 MT and multiples thereof.
Quotation / Base value  Rs per 100 KG (0.1 MT)
Tick size (minimum price movement) Rs 1 per 100 KG (0.1 MT)
Delivery Logic Compulsory delivery
Delivery Center Basis : Jaipur (up to the radius of 100 km from the corporation/municipal limits).
Additonal delivery Center(s) Alwar, Kota, Sri Ganganagar and Bikaner (all in Rajasthan), Hapur & Agra (both in Uttar Pradesh). (At all centers, up to a radius of 100 km from the corporation/municipal limits).

Mustard seeds obtained from mustard plants which is a cruciferous vegetable related to broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cabbage. Its Botanical Name is "Brassica Juncea". Mustard is also known as Rai, Sarson and Rapessed. These are small round seeds usually about 1 or 2mm in diameter. Mustard seeds may be colored ranging from yellowish white to black. It is a rich source of oil and protein. It can be crushed to form a paste that is mixed with water to form condiment. It can also be dried and crushed to form a powder, which is further processed to form mustard sauce. Approximately there are 40 different varieties of mustard plants.

Crop Calendar:
Mustard is a winter crop. In India plantation period is during Rabi session i.e. Oct-Nov. Flowering period is from Nov-Feb while harvesting period is from Feb to March.

Types of Mustard seeds:
There are three major types of mustard seeds:
  1. Black Mustard (Brassica nigra) is a round hard seed, varying in color from dark brown to black, smaller and much more pungent than the white.
  2. Brown Indian Mustard (Brassica nigra) is similar in size to the black variety and varies in color from light to dark brown. It is more pungent than the white, less than the black.
  3. White mustard (B. hirta/Sinapis alba) is a round hard seed, beige or straw colored. Its light outer skin is removed before sale. With its milder flavour and good preservative qualities, this is the one that is most commonly used in ballpark mustard and in pickling.

In Rapeseed production, India ranks 3rd in the world, with market share of 10.1 percent in 2008-09. India's total production of Rapeseed was approx. 6 Million tonnes as compared with world total production of 58 Million tones.

Rajasthan was the largest producing state of Mustard seeds with approx 49% of the total production, followed by UP and Haryana. In terms of yield per hectare Haryana stands at No 1 position with 1738 tonnes/hectare followed by Rajasthan and Punjab. The base price of Mustard seed was increased by Rs 30 to Rs 1830 in 2009-10 from Rs 1800 in 2008-09. In March-09, the commercial bank outstanding advances against Mustard decreased by 58% (as compared with March-08) to Rs 437 crore but it increased to Rs 514 crore in March-10.

The country exports rapeseed meal to Bangladesh, South Korea, China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam etc.

Mustard seed is primarily used as a source of edible oil and protein meal, while it is also used as a condiment. The seeds when crushed, yield's 33% oil and 67% protein meal content. The semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed, which can be used as a lubricant, illuminant and also for making soap apart from being edible. The mustard meal is used as animal feed because of its protein content. Over the last 4-5 years, the production and consumption has     been in synchronize with each other and the ending stocks have been in the range of 5.2% to 9.9% of the total production. The consumption of Mustard seed as a condiment is higher in India compared to that of the world.

Mustard is used in Indian, French, German and Irish cuisines. Mustard is used in salad dressings, egg dishes, cheese dishes, pickles and vegetables. Mustard is rubbed over meat before roasting. It is also added to butter to give butter a pleasant flavor. Mustard is also used as remedy for bronchitis, muscular &skeletal pains, fever and cold.

World Production:
Canada is the world's largest producer of Mustard seed followed by China and India. As the leading producing countries rapeseed oil is usually produced to meet their own domestic demand, that's why the world trade in this oil is very low as compared to the other edible oils. Canada is the largest exporter of the mustard seeds. The area and production of mustard seed have been increasing consistently. Being an important source of oil and protein meal, mustard seed is grown across the world. European Union leads the list of rapeseed producing countries with around 21,584 thousand tonnes of production in 2009-10. In the current decade, the area of mustard seed rose from 24.69 million hectares (2000-01) to 30.82 million hectares (2009-10) growing at Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 3.32%. The production rose from 37.33 million tonnes (2000-01) to 59.58 million tonnes (2009-10) growing at CAGR of 6.20%.

Factors that influence market:
  • Demand and supply of Mustard seed, mustard seed oil and other oil seeds
  • Area for cultivation for Mustard seed, mustard seed oil and other oil seeds.
  • Government policies on import and export.
  • Base Price.
  • Weather Conditions.

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