Chana

             
Commodity Name Chana
Symbol CHANADELHI
Basis for price quote Desi Chana Ex-warehouse Delhi inclusive of all taxes and levies
Trading unit  10 MT
Delivery unit 10 MT and multiples thereof
Quotation / Base value  Rs per 100 KG (0.1 MT)
Tick size (minimum price movement) Rs 1 per 100 KG (0.1 MT)
Delivery Logic Compulsory delivery
Delivery Center Basis: Desi Chana variety shall be delivered at the designated warehouse facilities accredited by the Exchange at Delhi (within a radius of 100 Kms from the corporation/municipal limits).
Additional delivery Center(s) Bikaner and Indore.
DesiChana variety can also be delivered at Bikaner - up to a radius of 100 kms from the municipal limits. Kantawalla Chana to be delivered only at Indore - up to a radius of 100 kms from the municipal limits. No other variety shall be accepted at Indore.


Contract Specification January 2014 onwards



Chickpea or chana is a very important pulse crop that grows as a seed of a plant named Cicer arietinum in the Leguminosae family. The plant grows to between 20–50 cm (8–20 inches) high and has small feathery leaves on either side of the stem. Chana is a rich source of high-quality protein. It is well grown in sandy and loam soils with low temperature during nights. It requires dry weather and is sensitive to rainfall.

 

Crop Cycle:
Chana is planted in India during Rabi season i.e. in the months of September to November and is harvested in February, March and April. The maturity period of desi type Chana is 95-105 days and of Kabuli type Chana is 100-110 days. It is usually suited in cooler climatic conditions and a low level of rainfall. As it is sensitive to rainfall, an appropriate drainage system is required otherwise it can hamper the yield levels of product. The peak arrival period begins from March-April at the major trading centers of the country. 

This crop is often cultivated as a sole crop but sometimes it is also grown rotationally with other crops such as jowar, bajra, wheat and coriander.


Types of Crop:
There are mainly two types of chickpea, separated on the basis of seed size, color, taste and geographic origin.

  • Desi : Desi chana, which is the main variety of India, has a smaller seed.
  • Kabuli : The Kabuli type has a large seed.
  • Pale yellow, dark brown, black or reddish chickpea are some of the varieties that are grown today

Production:
India is the largest producer of Chana in the world sharing 67% of the total world production. India produces approx 7.35 million tonnes of Chana in 2009-10 increased by 34.36% from 5.47 million tonnes in 2001-02. Productivity of pulses in India is very low at 895 kg/ha in 2009 as compared to yield of 1800-1900 kg/ha in Canada, United States and Mexico. Chickpea is the largely produced pulse crop in India accounting to 40% of the total pulse production and harvests mostly the Desi type Chana. Despite the fact that India is the largest producer of Chana in the world, the per capita domestic production / availability of Chana has declined from 30 grams/day in 1960 to 20 grams/day in 1970, 12.9 grams/day in 2009. Minimum price supported by govt. increased by more than Rs 315 and reached up to  Rs 1760 in 2009-10 from Rs 1435 in 2005-06.

CHANA
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The major Chana growing States are Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer of Chana approx 39% of total production followed by Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. During last two decades the average growth rate of pulses was 1.39 per cent where as the growth rate of population was 1.80 per cent.

Demand:
The demand within India is so large that despite being largest producer of Chana, India is also the largest importer in the world. India accounts for over 30% of all imports, almost all desis. Due to sharp rise in tur dal price, consumers are moving to a lower grade of tur dal and are also switching to cheaper pulses like matar/vatana or chana. About 80% of the Desi Chana produced are split in half to make Chana Dal, and 80% of this split form are ground into a flour called 'Besan' and rest part is consumed for other food products like green vegetable and cattle feed.

It is considered to be a rich source of protein approximately 25%, which is the maximum provided by any other pulse and ranks third amongst important legumes after dry bean and peas. Chana leaf extracts is rich for malic acid, is sometime used in medicine.

World Scenario:
Chana, the world's third most important food legume, is currently grown on about 10 million hectare worldwide, with 95% cultivation in the developing countries. In the world Scenario, as already mentioned India is the largest producer, Consumer and Importer of Chickpea.

CHANA
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The major countries which export chickpea are: - Turkey, Australia, Mexico, Canada, Syria, United States. The three countries namely Turkey, Australia and Mexico have a combined share of above 75 % of total world exports. The importing countries are India, Spain, Bangladesh, Algeria, Tunisia, Jordan, Italy, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, United Kingdom, United States, Saudi Arabia.

Market Influencing Factors :
  • Rainfall and moisture level in the soil.
  • Weather condition during winter season.
  • Crop situation in the countries from where India imports the crop.
  • Stocks present with stockiest and demand from mills.
  • Stocks-to-consumption ratio.
  • Government policies – Import/export, duties, stock limits and other restrictions,
  • The price of other major pulses like tur, yellow peas, green peas etc.